An objective field of study often begins when previously existing analytical methods seem to reveal a set of phenomena wholly different from any which have been studied before. It quickly becomes apparent that while these older tools are (perhaps just barely) able to make these phenomena apparent, they are inadequate to studying the new phenomena in full. A new set of tools and methodologies is required, and a new field is born. This new field then comes to have tools unique to itself, and are the tools of first resort in the field. The field is then bounded and defined, not only by the nature of the phenomena, but the nature of the tools as well; the experts in the field bring absolutely nothing new to the field, except to search more carefully and minutely.
There are examples of exceptional studies that are mere accidental incidents of a set of approaches that could be made systematically and purposefully, such as the study of biolgical systems as truly cybernetic systems ((further examples)). These efforts as much result from the "hammer in the hand" effect as anything else, but they too demonstrate an informal willingness to "poach" upon the territories of experts in other fields, or at least to collaborate in unprecedented new ways. Elegantly, this seems to be a more sophisticated "echo" of the discovery of a new field as outlined in the first paragraph.
- Vantage (Viewpoint)
- Figure (Foreground)
- Ground (Background, Context)
- Subject (the tools and methodologies of the field)
- Object (the phenomena under study, and their relationships)
- Relations (how Subjects and Objects relate, in any combination)
- Subject to Subject
- Subject to (other) Object
- Object to (other) Subject
- Object to Object