1. Define a question, a lack within known constructs.

2. Gather information and resources (observe). Use well-defined constructs to outline the parameters of the phenomena and give shape to an original construct.

3. Form an explanatory hypothesis; define the original construct in terms of comparisons and contrasts to older constructs.

4. Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment and collecting data in a reproducible manner. See how the phenomena themselves interact.

5. Analyze the data. Does the data fit the original construct qualitatively and quantitatively?

6. Interpret the data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis. Formulate changes in the original construct, or create new constructs.

7. Publish results. Distribute the constructs and the associated data.

8. Retest (frequently done by other scientists). Demonstrate that the constructs are robust across construct environments.